Wednesday, December 7, 2011

Pearl Harbor Remembrance



PEARL HARBOR REMEMBRANCE DAY IN THE UNITED STATES

Today we commemorate "Pearl Harbor Day."  Seventy years ago, Battleship Row, in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was attacked with incomprehensible destruction by the Imperial Japanese Navy. The next day President Franklin D. Roosevelt called December 7, 1941 "a date which will live in infamy." Thus we were drawn into fatal conflict with Japan.

It is fitting that we should remember America's war effort ... even during this Christmas Season.

  1. It was during this season that the United States entered war with Japan ... in direct response to the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  2. American service men and women engaged the enemy for several Christmases during WWII.
  3. During the Christmas Season notable events of WWII happened.
  4. Today the US is engaged in war in the Middle East and many Americans will be far from home at Christmas.


WHAT DO PEOPLE DO?

On the direction of the President, the flag of the United States of America should be displayed on the homes of Americans, the White House and all United States government buildings. The flag should be flown at half-mast to honor those who died in the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Many associations, especially those linked with Pearl Harbor survivors or those who died from the attack, participate in special services to commemorate the event. Memorial services are held at venues such as the USS Arizona Memorial in Pearl Harbor. Other activities include: wreath-laying ceremonies; keynote speeches by those associated with the event; luncheons; media stories on survivors’ recollections of the Pearl Harbor attack; and school activities to educate students about the attack on Pearl Harbor in relation to World War II history.

PUBLIC LIFE

Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day is not a federal holiday. Government offices, schools, businesses and other organizations do not close. Public transit systems run on their regular schedules. Some organizations may hold special events in memory of those killed or injured in Pearl Harbor.

BACKGROUND

On Sunday morning, December 7, 1941, the American Army and Navy base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii was attacked by the Imperial Japanese Navy. The attack came as a surprise to the American Army and Navy and lead to great losses of life and equipment. More than 2000 American citizens were killed and more than 1000 were injured. The Americans also lost a large proportion of their battle ships and nearly 200 aircraft that were stationed in the Pacific region. More than 60 Japanese servicemen were killed, injured or captured. The Japanese Navy also lost five midget submarines and 29 aircraft.

The Japanese military had hoped that the attack on Pearl Harbor would prevent the United States of America from increasing her influence in the Pacific. However, the events in Pearl Harbor actually led to the escalation of World War II. The day after the attack, the United States declared war on Japan and so entered World War II. President Franklin Roosevelt in a speech to Congress stated that the bombing of Pearl Harbor was “a date which will live in infamy”. Shortly afterwards, Germany also declared war on the United States. In the months that followed the attack, the slogan “Remember Pearl Harbor” swept the United States and radio stations repeatedly played a song of the same name.

In 1991, which marked the 50th anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States Congress established the Pearl Harbor Commemorative Medal. This is also known as the Pearl Harbor Survivor's Medal and can be awarded to any veteran of the United States military who were present in or around Pearl Harbor during the attack by the Japanese military. The medal can be awarded to civilians, who were killed or injured in the attack.

SYMBOLS

Memorials have been built to remember or to symbolize the day. For example, the USS Arizona Memorial in Pearl Harbor is a marble memorial built over the sunken USS Arizona, which was dedicated in 1962. The memorial remembers all military personnel who were killed in the Pearl Harbor attack. The memorial was designed by architect Alfred Preis, an Austrian-born resident who lived in Honolulu and was placed at a detainment camp after the Pearl Harbor attack as part of the internment policy of Japanese and German Americans at the time.

Another memorial that commemorates Pearl Harbor Day is the USS Utah, a battleship that was attacked and sunk in Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. A memorial to honor the crew of the USS Utah was dedicated on the northwest shore of Ford Island, near the ship's wreck, in 1972. The ship was added to the National Register of Historic Places and declared a National Historic Landmark in 1989. It is also Utah’s official state ship. Memorabilia, books, and movies about the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 have also been made available to the public over the years.


WHAT WILL WE DO TODAY?

Today my boys will be learning about Pearl Harbor. I've downloaded a couple of video segments from Discovery Education that will give them some insight on the attack ... these are just a few minutes in length. I also have FDR's speech he made to congress that we will listen to today. After that we'll watch National Geographic's "Pearl Harbor: Legacy of Attack" which is narrated by Tom Brokaw on Netflix. This had a nice review from another homeschooler with boys close in age as my own. I'll let you know how it goes.

I'm also going to see if the boys will sit for the movie "Pearl Harbor" ... I'm pretty sure I have that one. That may be a little too much though! :) If they won't I'll still be watching it.

My thoughts and prayers go out to our service men and women everyday, but especially on a day like today.



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